Funding + Resource Allocation

While specifics related to K-12 funding and college affordability vary from state to state, cohort members in each state found it to be the overarching equity issue facing schools and families today. Below are general sources on funding and college affordability followed by summaries of the funding issues and detailed sources by state.

Texas

71% Students of Colors in K-12
56.3% Students of Color in Higher Ed
$8,602 Per Pupil Spending
• N/A Privatization Efforts
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Mississippi

54.9% Students of Colors in K-12
42.5% Students of Color in Higher Ed
$8,265 Per Pupil Spending
• Vouchers PE
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Tennessee

35.1% Students of Colors in K-12
27.7% Students of Color in Higher Ed
$8,662 Per Pupil Spending
• State Takeover
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North Carolina

49.2% Students of Colors in K-12
36.4% Students of Color in Higher Ed
$8,287 Per Pupil Spending
• State Takeover & Vouchers
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Georgia

58.2% Students of Colors in K-12
45.9% Students of Color in Higher Ed
$9,236 Per Pupil Spending
• Tax Credits & Vouchers PE Read More

Florida

59.8% Students of Colors in K-12
48.5% Students of Color in Higher Ed
$8,995 Per Pupil Spending
• Tax Credit & Voucher
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Peer-Reviewed sources

A Fifty-State Survey of School Finance Policies and Programs: An Overview. Journal of Education Finance. Deborah A. Verstegen and Teresa S. Jordan. Winter 2009.

Modernizing “San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez”: How Evolving Supreme Court Jurisprudence Changes the Face of Education Finance Litigation. Journal of Education Finance. Matthew Saleh. Fall 2011. 

The Effects of School Spending on Educational and Economic Outcomes: Evidence from School Finance Reforms. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. C. Kirabo Jackson, Rucker C. Johnson, and Claudia Persico. October 1, 2015. 

State Education Funding is in the Legal Spotlight. The Phi Delta Kappan. Julie Underwood. October 2015.

Income Segregation Between Schools and School Districts. American Educational Research Journal. Ann Owens, Sean F. Reardon, Christopher Jencks. August 1, 2016.

Reducing Inequality Through Dynamic Complementarity: Evidence from Head Start and Public School Spending. National Bureau of Economic Research. Rucker C. Johnson and C. Kirabo Jackson. Issued June 2017, Revised February 2018. 

School Finance Reform and the Distribution of Student Achievement. American Economic Association. Julien Lafortune, Jesse Rothstein, and Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach. April 2018.

Rural School Funding Litigation: A Review of Recent Cases, Judicial-Legislative Interactions, and Emerging Trends. Journal of Education Finance. John Dayton. Fall 2003. 

Rural Factors in State Funding Systems. Journal of Education Finance. Catherine Sielke. Winter 2004.

Finding Fairness for Rural Students. The Phi Delta Kappan. Marty Strange. March 2011. 

STATE-BY-STATE ANALYSIS

FLORIDA

GEORGIA

MISSISSIPPI

N. CAROLINA

TENNESSEE

TEXAS